Important Financial Terms related to Stocks at Pak Stock Exchange
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Important Financial Terms

Accounts Payable

Accounts payable represent a business’s obligations to pay debts owed to lenders, suppliers, and creditors. Sometimes referred to as A/P or AP for short, these liabilities can be short or long term depending upon the type of credit provided to the business by the lender

Accounts Receivable

Also known as A/R (or AR, good guess), accounts receivables consist of money owed to a business by others for goods or services rendered. These accounts are labeled as assets because they represent a legal obligation for the customer to pay you cash for their short-term debt.

Accrual Basis

This is the accounting method of recording income when it’s actually earned and expenses when they actually occur. Accrual basis accounting is the most common approach used by larger businesses to record and maintain financial transactions.

Accruals

A term referring to expenses that have been incurred but haven’t yet been recorded in the business books. Wages and payroll taxes are common examples.

Annual Percentage Rate

The APR represents the yearly real cost of a loan including all interest and fees. The total amount of interest to be paid is based on the original amount loaned, or the principal, and is represented in percentage form. When shopping for the right loan for your small business, you should know the APR for the loan in question. This figure can be very helpful in comparing one financial tool with another since it represents the actual cost of borrowing.

Appraisal

Just like a real estate appraisal when buying a house, an appraisal is a professional opinion of market value. When closing a loan a business, you will probably need one or more of the three types of appraisals: real estate, equipment, and business value.

Articles of Incorporation

This is legal documentation of the business’s creation, including name, type of business, and type of business structure or incorporation. This paperwork is one of the first tasks you will complete when you officially start your business. Once submitted, your articles of incorporation are kept on file with the appropriate governmental agencies.

Asset

Anything that has value—whether tangible or intangible—and is owned by the business is considered an asset. Typical items listed as business assets are cash on hand, accounts receivable, buildings, equipment, inventory, and anything else that can be turned into cash.

Asset Turnover Ratio

What you Need ?

Income Statement, Balance Sheet

Formula

Asset Turnover Ratio = Sales / Average Total Assets

Meaning

Like return on assets (ROA), the asset turnover ratio tells you how good the company is at using its assets to make products to sell. For example, if Company A reported $100,000 of sales and owns $50,000 in assets, its asset turnover ratio is 2x. For ever $1 of assets it owns, it can generate $2 in sales each year.

Balance Sheet

Along with three other reports relating to the financial health of a business, the balance sheet is essential information that gives a “snapshot” of the company’s net worth at any given time. The report is a summary of the business assets and liabilities.

Balloon Loan

A loan that is structured so that a business owner makes regular repayments on a predetermined schedule and one much larger payment, or balloon payment, at the end. These can be attractive to new businesses because the payments are smaller at the outset when the business is more likely to be facing strict financial constraints. However, be sure that your business will be capable of making that last balloon payment since it will be a large one.

Bankruptcy

This federal law is used as a tool for businesses or individuals who are having severe financial challenges. It provides a plan for reduction and repayment of debts over time or an opportunity to completely eliminate the majority of the outstanding debts. Turning to bankruptcy should be given careful thought because it will have a negative effect on the business credit score.

Bookkeeping

A method of accounting that involves the timely recording of all financial transactions for the business.

Bootstrapping

Using your own money to finance the start-up and growth of your small business. Think of it as being your own investor. Once the business is up and running successfully, bootstrapping refers to the use of profits earned to reinvest in the business.

Business Credit Report

Items like how large the company is, how long has it been in business, amount and type of credit issued to the business, how credit has been managed, and any legal filings (i.e., bankruptcy) are all questions addressed by the business credit report. Lenders, investors, and insurance companies use these reports to evaluate risk exposure and financial health of a business.

Business Credit Score

A business credit score is calculated based on the information found in the business credit report. Using a specialized algorithm, business credit scoring companies take into account all the information found on your credit report and give your small business a credit score. Also called a commercial credit score, this number is used by various lenders and suppliers to evaluate your creditworthiness.

Business Plan

Here is your tool for demonstrating how you want to establish your small business and how you plan to grow it into good financial health. When writing a business plan, it should include financial, operational, and marketing goals as well as how you plan to get there. The more specific you are with your business plan, the better prepared you will be in the long run.

Capital

Refers to the overall wealth of a business as demonstrated by its cash accounts, assets, and investments. Often called “fixed capital,” it refers to the long-term worth of the business. Capital can be tangible, like durable goods, buildings, and equipment, or intangible such as intellectual property.

Cash Flow

Every business needs cash to operate. Cash flow refers to the amount of operating cash that “flows” through the business and affects the business’s liquidity. Cash flow reports reflect activity for a specified period of time, usually one accounting period or one month. Maintaining tight control of cash flow is especially important if your small business is new, since ready cash can be limited until the business begins to grow and produce more working capital.

Cash Flow Projections

Future business decisions will depend on your educated cash flow projections. To plan ahead for upcoming expenditures and working capital, you need to depend on previous cash flow patterns. These patterns will give you a comprehensive look at how and when you receive and spend your cash. This info is the key to unlock informed, accurate cash flow projections.

Cashflow Statement

One of the important documents required by lenders and investors that shows a summary of the actual collection of revenue and payment of expenses a business. The statement of cash flow should reflect activity in the areas of operating, investing, and financing and should be an integral part of your financial statement package.

Collateral

Any asset that you pledge as security for a loan instrument is called collateral. Lenders often require collateral as a way to make sure they won’t lose money if your business defaults on the loan. When you pledge an asset for collateral, it becomes subject to seizure by the lender if you fail to meet the requirements of the loan documents.

Credit Limit

When a lender offers a business line of credit it usually comes with a credit limit, or a maximum amount that you can use at any given time. It is said that you reach your credit limit or “max out” your credit when you borrow up to or exceed that number. A business line of credit can be especially useful if your business is seasonal or if the income is extremely unpredictable. It is one of the fastest ways to access cash for emergencies.

Current Ratio

What you Need ?

Balance Sheet

Formula

Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities

Meaning

The current ratio measures a company's ability to pay its short-term liabilities with its short-term assets. If the ratio is over 1.0, the firm has more short-term assets than short-term debts. But if the current ratio is less than 1.0, the opposite is true and the company could be vulnerable to unexpected bumps in the economy or business climate.

Debt Consolidation

If a business has several loans with various payments, you might want to consider a business debt consolidation loan. It is a process that lets you combine multiple loans into a single loan. The advantages are possibly reducing the interest rates on the borrowed funds as well as lowering the total amount you repay each month. Businesses use this tool to help improve cash flow.

Debt Financing

When you borrow money from a lender and agree to repay the principal with interest in regular payments for a specified period of time, you’re using debt financing. Traditionally, it has been the most common form of funding for small businesses.

Debt Service Coverage Ratio

The debt service coverage ratio (DSCR) is the ratio of cash a business has available for paying or servicing its debt. Debt payments include making principal and interest payments on the loan you are requesting. Generally speaking, if your DSCR is above 1, your business has enough income to meet its debt requirements.

Debt to Equity Ratio

What you Need ?

Balance Sheet

Formula

Debt-to-Equity Ratio = Total Liabilities / Total Shareholder Equity

Meaning

Total liabilities and total shareholder equity are both found on the balance sheet. The debt-to-equity ratio measures the relationship between the amount of capital that has been borrowed (i.e. debt) and the amount of capital contributed by shareholders (i.e. equity). Generally speaking, as a firm's debt-to-equity ratio increases, it becomes more risky because if it becomes unable to meet its debt obligations, it will be forced into bankruptcy.

Depreciation

The value of any asset can be said to depreciate when it loses some of that value in increments over time. Depreciation occurs due to wear and tear. Various methods of depreciation are used by businesses to decrease the recorded value of assets.

Dividend Payout Ratio

What you Need ?

Income Statement

Formula

Dividend Payout Ratio = Dividend / Net Income

Meaning

The percentage of profits distributed as a dividend is called the dividend payout ratio. Some companies maintain a steady payout ratio, while other try to maintain a steady number of dollars paid out each year (which means the payout ratio will fluctuate). Each company sets its own dividend policy according to what it thinks is in the best interest of its shareholders. Income investors should keep an especially close eye on changes in dividend policy.

Dividend Reinvestment Plan - DRIP

A plan offered by a corporation that allows investors to reinvest their cash dividends by purchasing additional shares or fractional shares on the dividend payment date.

Dividend Yield

What you Need ?

Income Statement, Most Recent Stock Price

Formula

Dividend Yield = Dividend per Share / Price per Share

Meaning

Dividends are the main way companies return money to their shareholders. If a firm pays a dividend, it will be listed on the balance sheet, right above the bottom line. Dividend yield is used to compare different dividend-paying stocks. Some people prefer to invest in companies with a steady dividend, even if the dividend yield is low, while others prefer to invest in stocks with a high dividend yield.

Equity Financing

The act of using investor funds in exchange for a piece or ”share” of a business is another way to raise capital. These funds can come from friends, family, angel investors, or venture capitalists.

Financial Statements

An integral part of the loan application process is furnishing information that shows your business is a good credit risk. The standard financial statement packet includes four main reports: the income statement, the balance sheet, the statement of cash flow, and the statement of shareholder’s equity, if you have shareholders. Lenders and investors want to see that your business is well-balanced with assets and liabilities, has positive cash flow, and will have capital to make expected repayments.

Fixed Asset

A tangible, long-term asset used for the business and not expected to be sold or otherwise converted into cash during the current or upcoming fiscal year is called a fixed asset. Fixed assets are items like furniture, computer equipment, equipment, and real estate.

Fixed Interest Rate

The interest rate on a loan that is established in the beginning and does not change for the lifetime of the loan is said to be fixed. Loans with fixed interest rates are appealing to small business owners because the repayment amounts are consistent and easier to budget for in the future.

Floating Interest Rate

In contrast to a fixed rate, the floating interest rate will change with market fluctuations. Also referred to as variable rates or adjustable rates, these amounts may often start out lower than the fixed rate percentages. This makes them more appealing in the short term if the market is trending down.

Franchise Agreement

For a small business entrepreneur, entering into a franchise agreement with a larger company can be a way to enter the marketplace. The agreement made between you and the larger company gives you the right to operate as a satellite of the larger company in a certain territory for a given period of time. This lets you, the business owner, take advantage of a brand name that’s already familiar in the marketplace and a process or operation that has already been tested.

Gross Profit

This can be calculated as total sales (income) less the costs (expenses) directly related to those sales. Raw materials, manufacturing expenses, labor costs, marketing, and transportation of goods are all included in expenses.

Guarantor

When starting a new small business, lenders might want you to provide a guarantor. This is an individual who guarantees to cover the balance owed on a debt if you or your business cannot meet the repayment obligation.

Income Statement

Here is one of the four most important reports lenders and investors want to see when evaluating the viability of a small business. It is also called a profit and loss statement, and it addresses the business’s bottom line, reporting how much the business has earned and spent over a given period of time. The result will be either a net gain or a net loss.

Intangible Asset

A business asset that is non-physical is considered intangible. These assets can be items like patents, goodwill, and intellectual property.

Interest Coverage Ratio

What you Need ?

Income Statement

Formula

Interest Coverage Ratio = EBIT / Interest Expense

Meaning

Both EBIT (aka, operating income) and interest expense are found on the income statement. The interest coverage ratio, also known as times interest earned (TIE), is a measure of how well a company can meet its interest payment obligations. If a company can't make enough to make interest payments, it will be forced into bankruptcy. Anything lower than 1.0 is usually a sign of trouble.

Interest Rate

All loans and other lending instruments are assigned interest rates. This is a percentage of the principal amount charged by the lender for the use of its money. Interest rates represent the current cost of borrowing.

Inventory Turnover Ratio

What you Need ?

Income Statement, Balance Sheet

Formula

Inventory Turnover Ratio = Costs of Goods Sold / Average Inventory

Meaning

If the company you're analyzing holds has inventory, you want that company to be selling it as fast as possible, not stockpiling it. The inventory turnover ratio measures this efficiency in cycling inventory. By dividing costs of goods sold (COGS) by the average amount of inventory the company held during the period, you can discern how fast the company has to replenish its shelves. Generally, a high inventory turnover ratio indicates that the firm is selling inventory (thereby having to spend money to make new inventory) relatively quickly.

Leverage & Margin

Two concepts that are important to traders are margin and leverage. Margin is a loan extended by your broker that allows you to leverage the funds and securities in your account to enter larger trades. In order to use margin, you must open and be approved for a margin account. The loan is collateralized by the securities and cash in your margin account. The borrowed money doesn't come free, however; it has to be paid back with interest.

Liability

A liability is legal obligation to repay or otherwise settle a debt. Liabilities are considered either current (payable within one year or less) or long-term (payable after one year) and are listed on a business’s balance sheet. A business’s accounts payable, wages, taxes, and accrued expenses are all considered liabilities.

Lien

A creditor’s legal claim to the collateral pledged as security for a loan is called a lien.

Line of Credit

A lender may offer you an unsecured amount of funds available for your business to draw on when capital is needed. This line of credit is considered a short-term funding option, with a maximum amount available. This pre-approved pool of money is appealing because it gives you quick access to the cash.

Liquidity

Liquidity is an indicator of how quickly an asset can be turned into cash for full market value. The more liquid your assets, the more financial flexibility you have.

Loan-to-Value

The LTV comparison is a ratio of the fair-market value of an asset compared to the amount of the loan that will fund it. This is another important number for lenders who need to know if the value of the asset will cover the loan repayment if your business defaults and fails to pay.

Long-Term Debt

Any loan product with a total repayment schedule lasting longer than one year is considered a long-term debt.

Merchant Cash Advance

A merchant may offer a funding method through a loan based on the business’s monthly sales volume. Repayment is made with a percentage of the daily or weekly sales. These tend to be short-term loans and are one of the costliest ways to fund your small business.

Net Operating Loss - NOL

A period in which a company's allowable tax deductions are greater than its taxable income, resulting in a negative taxable income. This generally occurs when a company has incurred more expenses than revenues during the period. The net operating loss for the company can generally be used to recover past tax payments or reduce future tax payments.

Net Worth

This is an expression of your business’s total value, as determined by your total current assets less the total liabilities currently owed by the business. With your business’s most recent balance sheet in hand, you can calculate the net worth using a simple formula: Assets – Liabilities = Net Worth.

PEG Ratio

What you Need ?

Income Statement, Most Recent Stock Price

Formula

PEG Ratio = (P/E Ratio) / Projected Annual Growth in Earnings per Share

Meaning

The PEG ratio uses the basic format of the P/E ratio for a numerator and then divides by the potential growth for EPS, which you'll have to estimate. The two ratios may seem to be very similar but the PEG ratio is able to take into account future earnings growth. A very generally rule of thumb is that any PEG ratio below 1.0 is considered to be a good value

Personal Guarantee

If you’re seeking financing for a very new business and don’t have a high value asset to offer as collateral, you may be asked by the lender to sign a statement of personal guarantee. In effect, this statement affirms that you as an individual will act as guarantor for the business’s debt, making you personally liable for the balance of the loan even in the event that your business fails.

Price-to-Book Ratio (P/B)

What you Need ?

Balance Sheet, Most Recent Stock Price

Formula

P/B Ratio = Price per Share / Book Value per Share

Meaning

Book value (BV) is already listed on the balance sheet, it's just under a different name: shareholder equity. Equity is the portion of the company that owners (i.e. shareholders) own free and clear. Dividing book value by the number of shares outstanding gives you book value per share.
Like P/E, the P/B ratio is essentially the number of dollars you'll have to pay for $1 of equity. And like P/E, there are different criteria for what makes a P/B ratio "high" or "low."

Price-to-Earnings Ratio (P/E)

What you Need ?

Income Statement, Most Recent Stock Price

Formula

P/E Ratio = Price per Share / Earnings Per Share

Meaning

Think of the price-to-earnings ratio as the price you'll pay for $1 of earnings. A very, very general rule of thumb is that shares trading at a "low" P/E are a value, though the definition of "low" varies from industry to industry.

Price-to-Sales Ratio

What you Need ?

Income Statement, Most Recent Stock Price

Formula

Price-to-Sales Ratio = Price per Share / Annual Sales Per Share

Meaning

Much like P/E or P/B, think of P/S as the price you'll pay for $1 of sales. If you are comparing two different firms and you see that one firm's P/S ratio is 2x and the other is 4x, it makes sense to figure out why investors are willing to pay more for the company with a P/S of 4x. The P/S ratio is a great tool because sales figures are considered to be relatively reliable while other income statement items, like earnings, can be easily manipulated by using different accounting rules.

Principal

Any loan instrument is made of three parts—the principal, the interest, and the fees. The principal is the original amount that is borrowed or the outstanding balance to be repaid less interest. It is used to calculate the total interest and fees charged.

Profit Margin

What you Need ?

Income Statement

Formula

Profit Margin = Net Income / Sales

Meaning

Profit margin calculates how much of a company's total sales flow through to the bottom line. As you can probably tell, higher profits are better for shareholders, as is a high (and/or increasing) profit margin.

Quick Ratio

What you Need ?

Balance Sheet

Formula

Quick Ratio = (Current Assets - Inventory) / Current Liabilities

Meaning

The quick ratio (also known as the acid-test ratio) is similar to the quick ratio in that it's a measure of how well a company can meet its short-term financial liabilities. However, it takes the concept one step further. The quick ratio backs out inventory because it assumes that selling inventory would take several weeks or months. The quick ratio only takes into account those assets that could be used to pay short-term debts today.

Retained Earnings

Just like it sounds, this term represents any profits earned that are retained in the business. This can also be referred to as bootstrapping.

Return on Assets (ROA)

What you Need ?

Income Statement, Balance Sheet

Formula

Return on Assets = Net Income / Average Total Assets

Meaning

A company buys assets (factories, equipment, etc.) in order to conduct its business. ROA tells you how good the company is at using its assets to make money. For example, if Company A reported $10,000 of net income and owns $100,000 in assets, its ROA is 10%. For ever $1 of assets it owns, it can generate $0.10 in profits each year. With ROA, higher is better.

Return on Equity (ROE)

What you Need ?

Income Statement, Balance Sheet

Formula

Return on Equity = Net Income / Average Stockholder Equity

Meaning

Equity is another word for ownership. ROE tells you how good a company is at rewarding its shareholders for their investment. For example, if Company B reported $10,000 of net income and its shareholders have $200,000 in equity, its ROE is 5%. For every $1 of equity shareholders own, the company generates $0.05 in profits each year. As with ROA, higher is better.

Revolving Line of Credit

This funding option is similar to a standard line of credit. However, the agreement is to lend a specific amount of money, and once that sum is repaid, it can be borrowed again.

Secured Loan

Many lenders will require some form of security when loaning money. When this happens, it is called a secured loan. The asset being used as collateral for the loan is said to be “securing” the loan. In the event that your small business defaults on the loan, the lender can then claim the collateral and use its fair-market value to offset the unpaid balance.

Term Loan

These are debt financing tools used to raise needed funds for your small business. Term loans provide the business with a lump sum of cash up front in exchange for a promise to repay the principal and interest at specified intervals over a set period of time. These are typically longer term, one-time loans for start-up expenses or costs for established business expansion.

Unsecured Loans

Loans that are not backed by collateral are called unsecured loans. These types of loans represent a higher risk for the lender, so you can expect to pay higher interest rates and have shorter repayment time frames. Credit cards are an excellent example of unsecured loans that are a good option for small business funding when combined with other financing options.

Working Capital

Not to be confused with fixed capital, working capital consists of the financial resources necessary for maintaining the day-to-day operation of the business. Working capital, by definition, is the business’s cash on hand or instruments that you can convert to cash quickly.

Random Financial Term

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Return on Equity (ROE)

What you Need ?

Income Statement, Balance Sheet

Formula

Return on Equity = Net Income / Average Stockholder Equity

Meaning

Equity is another word for ownership. ROE tells you how good a company is at rewarding its shareholders for their investment. For example, if Company B reported $10,000 of net income and its shareholders have $200,000 in equity, its ROE is 5%. For every $1 of equity shareholders own, the company generates $0.05 in profits each year. As with ROA, higher is better.

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